Normal Sentence Pattern In English
Pola umum kalimat terdiri dari Subject (Subyek), Verb (predikat), Complement (objek) dan Modifier (Keterangan). Pembahasan awal memang mudah, karena hampir sama denga aturan bahasa Indonesia. Contoh kalimat : John ate a pizza last night. Bila dijabarkan John (S), ate (V), a pizza (C), last night (M).
Setiap kalimat bahasa Inggris pasti mempunyai subyek dan predikat (verb), subyek adalah pelaku. Subyek bisa berupa single noun (kata benda tunggal), contoh, Coffee is delicious. Subyek bisa juga berupa noun phrase (frase kata benda), contohnya The book is on the table. Noun phrase yang digunakan untuk subyek tidak boleh diawali dengan preposisi .
Kata “it” bisa digunakan sebagai pronoun (kata ganti) untuk benda atau subyek untuk impersonal verb . Contoh, It rains quite often here in the summer.
Pada beberapa kata, subyek tidak terletak pada posisinya, maka kata “there” bisa menjadi pengganti, sebagai pseudo-subject. Sedangkan subyek yang sesungguhnya terletak setelah verb. Contoh, There was a fire in that building lst month. kata “there” sebagai pseudo-subject dan kata “a fire” sebagai subyek yang sesungguhnya. Berarti dalam kalimat diatas tidak ada complement (objek) ? ya, karena complement bukan hal yang harus ada dalam sebuah kalimat.
Verb mengikuti subyek dalam kalimat deklaratif, secara umum menunjukkan aksi dari kalimat. Contoh : John drives too fast . Verb bisa juga sebuah frase yang terdiri dari satu atau lebih auxiliary/ kata bantu. Contoh, John is going to Miami tomorrow. kata “is” adalah auxiliary.
Peraturannya mirip dengan subyek, dapat berupa noun atau noun phrase. Secara umum mengikuti verb. Complement menjawab pertanyaan what? dan whom?. Contoh John bought a cake yesterday (what did John buy?). Contoh 2, She saw John at the movies last night (whom did she see at the movies?)
Modifier menjelaskan tentang waktu, tempat atau cara dari sebuah kerja. Sangat sering berupa frase ber-preposisi, contoh : in the morning, at the university, on the table. Modifier dapat juga berupa adverb (kata keterangan) atau adverbial phrase, contoh last night, next year, yesterday. Modifier menjawab pertanyaan when? where? atau how?
3-Normal Sentence Pattern in English
Subject + verb + complement + modifier
John and I ate a pizza last night
We studied “present perfect” last week
• Subject: The subject is the agent of the sentence in the active voice; it is
the person or thing that does the action of the sentence, and it normally
precedes the verb. NOTE:Every sentence in English must have a suhject. (In
the case of commands, the subject is understood.) The subject may be a
Coffee is delicious. Milk contains calcium.
The subject may be a noun phrase. A noun phrase is a group of words ending
with a noun. ( It CANNOT begin with a preposition.)
The book is on the table. That new, red car is John’s.
Examples of subjets:
We girls are not going to that movie.
George likes boats.
Mary, John, George, and I went to a restaurant last night.
The weather was very bad yesterday.
The chemistry professor cancelled class today.
The bank closed at two o’clock.
In some sentences there is not a true subject. However, it and there can often, act as pseudo-subjects and should be considered as subjects when rules call for moving the subject of a sentence.
It is a nice day today.
There was a fire in that building last month.
There were many students in the room.
It is raining right now.
The verb follows the subject: it generally shows the action of the sentence. NOTE:Every sentence must have a verb. The verb may be a single word.
John drives too fast.
They hate spinach.
The verb may be a verb phrase. A verb phrase consists of one or more
auxiliaries and one main verb. The auxiliaries always precede the main
John is going to Miami tomorrow. (auxiliary-is, main verb-going)
Jane has been reading that book. (auxiliaries-has. been; main verb-reading)=present perfact countineus
Examples of verbs and verb phrases:
She will go to Boston next week.
Jane is very tall.
She must have gone to the bank.
Joe has gone home.
Mary is watching television.
It was raining at six o’clock last night.
A complement completes the verb. It is similar to the subject because it is usually a noun or noun phrase; however, it generally follows the verb when the sentence is in the active voice. NOTE: Every sentence does not require a complement. The complement CANNOT begin with a preposition. A complement answers the question what? or whom?
Examples of complements:
John bought a cake yesterday. (What did Juhn buy?)
Jill was driving a new car. (What was Jill driving?)
He wants to drink some water. (What does he want to drink?)
She saw John at the movies last night. (Whom did she see at the movies?)
They called Mary yesterday. (Whom did they call?)
He was smoking a cigarette. (What was he smoking?)
A modifier tells the time, place, or manner of the action. Very often it is a prepositional phrase. A prepositional phrase is a group of words that begins with a preposition and ends with a noun. NOTE: A modifier uf time usually comes last if more than one modifier is present.
Examples of prepositional phrases:
in the morning, at the university, on the table
A modifier can also be an adverb or an adverbial phrase.
last night, hurriedly, next year, outdoors, yesterday
NOTE: Every sentence does not require a modifier. A modifier answers the question when? where? or how?
Examples of modifiers:
John bought a book at the bookstore. (Where did John buy a book?)
(at the bookstore: Modifier of place)
Jill was swimming in the pool , yesterday. (Where was Jill swimming?)(When was Jill swimming?)
(in the pool: Modifier of place ) (yesterday:Modifier of time)
He was driving very fast. (How was he driving?)
(very fast: Modifier of manner)
The milk is in the refrigerator. (Where is the milk?)
(in the refrigerator: Modifier of place)
She drove the car on Main Street. (Where did she drive?)
(on Main Street: Modifier of place )
We ate dinner at seven o’clock. (When did we eat dinner?)
(at seven o’clock: Modifier of time)
NOTE: The modifier normally follows the complement, but not always, However, the modifier, especially when it is a prepositional phrase, usually cannot separate the verb and the complement.
Incorrect: She drove on the street the car.
(drove: verb ) (the car: complement)
Correct: She drove the car on the street.
(drove: verb ) (the car: complement)
Exercise 1: Subject, Verb,Complement and Modifier
Identify the subject, verb, complement, and modifier in each of the following sentences. Remember that not every sentence has a complement or modifier.
Jill / is buying / a new bat / in tbe store.
(Jill: Subject)( is buying: Verb phrare)( a new bat: Complement) (in tbe store: Modifier of place)
Betty / is shopping /downtown.
(Betty: Subject)( is shopping: Verb phrare) (downtown: Modifier of place)
1. George is cooking dinner tonight.
2. Henry and Marcia have visited the president
3. We can eat lunch in this restaurant today.
4. Pat should have bought gasoline yesterday.
5. Trees grow.
6. It was raining at seven o’clock this morning.
7. She opened a checking account at the bank last week.
8. Harry is washing dishes right now.
9. She opened her book.
10. Paul, William, and Mary were watching television a few minutes ago
Answer for exercises 1
1. (George: Subject), (is cooking: Verb phrase), (dinner: Complement), (tonight: Modifier of time)
2. (Henry and Marcia: Subject), (have visited: verb phrase), (the president: complement)
3. (We: Subject), (can eat: Verb phrase), (lunch: Complement), (in this restaurant: Modifier of place), (today: Modifier of time)
4. (Pat: Subject), (should have bought: Verb phrase), (gasoline: Complement), (yesterday: Modifier of time).
5. (Trees: Subject), (grow: Verb).
6. (It: Subject), (was raining: Verb phrase), (at seven o’clock this morning: Modifier of time).
7. (She:Subject), (opened: Verb) (a checking account: Complement), (at the bank: Modifier of place), (last week: Modifier of time) .
8. (Harry: Subject), (is washing: Verb phrase), (dishes: Complement),(right now: Modifier of time).
9. (She: Subject), (opened: Verb) (her book: Complement) .
;Complement) (a few minutes ago: Modifier of time).